Anaesthesia Management Strategies for Cystotomy in Dogs


  • Lintan Ayu Kisya Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
  • Dian Vidiastuti School of Graduate Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia



anesthesia, breeds, cystotomy, dog, geriatric


Geriatric and Portosystemic shunts could increase the risk of anaesthetic drug toxicity during cystotomy in dogs experiencing urolithiasis. The study reviewed the use of anaesthesia in cystotomy in dogs, from case reports published during the period between 2012-2022, retreived using the Google Scholar search engine. Inclusion criteria for the review involved a detailed description of the examinations and treatments. Ten articles were reviewed and showed that the most frequently used premedication, - induction anaesthesia, and maintenance anaesthetic agents were Xylazine, Ketamine, and Isoflurane, consecutively. In geriatric cases, Atropine Sulphate, Diazepam and Xylazine were used as premedication, while Ketamine and Propofol were used as induction anaesthesia. In large breeds, Xylazine, Meloxicam, Atropine Sulphate, Diazepam, and Buprenorphine were used as premedication, while
Ketamine, Diazepam, and Propofol were used as – induction anaesthesia, and Isoflurane was used as maintenance anaesthesia. Considerations in using anaesthesia in different medical conditions are discussed.


Begum, M. M., Roshini, S. T., & Bhuvaneshwari, V. (2019). Cystic and Urethral Calculi-A Case Study of Surgical Management in a Two Year Old Labrador Dog. Indian Vet. J, 96(05), 64–66.

Devi, T. R., Das, D., Konwar, B., Bayan, H., Saika, B., Sarma, K., Chethan, G. E., Tulukdar, D., Behera, S. K., Kayina, A., & Kayina, A. K. (2020). Diagnosis and Management of Ammonium Urate Cystoliths in a Bitch. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 8(4), 1141–1144.

Fossum, T. W. (2018). Small Animal Surgery (5th ed.). Elsevier.

Ghosh, C. K., Roy, S., Sarkar, P., & Singh, A. (2020). Surgical Management of Urolithiasis in a Male Labrador: A Case Report. The Indian Journal of Veterinary Sciences and Biotechnology, 16(01), 77–79.

Kreins, S. (2012). Breed-Spesific Anesthesia. Tufts University.

Mahesh, V. D. P., & Nagaraja, B. N. (2020). Surgical Management of Cystoliths and Bladder Papilloma in a Female Beagle - A Case Report. Indian Journal of Canine Practice, 12(2), 25–27.

Men, Y. V., & Arjentina, I. P. G. Y. (2018). Laporan Kasus: Urolithiasis Pada Anjing Mix Rottweiller. Indonesia Medicus Veterinus, 7(3), 211–218.

Mishra, M., Akash, Bisht, D., & Maiti, S. K. (2020). Successful Surgical Retrieval of a Urinary Foreign Body by Cystotomy in Labrador Retriever Dog: A Case Report. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 9(4), 1300–1303.

Njoku, N. U., Ajayi, N. O., Kalu, N. R., & Ukweni, C. P. (2021). Case Report Management of canine urolithiasis by cystotomy in a two-year old Lhasa Apso bitch. JoSVAS, 1(1), 96–99.

Plumb, D. C., & Pharm, D. (2011). Veterinary Drug Handbook (7th ed.). PharmaVet Inc. Pluta, R. M. (2011). Abdominal Hernia. JAMA, 305(20), 2130.

Rafeel, M. A., Sexena, A. C., Baghel, M., & Suvarna A. (2014). Surgical Management of Cystic Calculi and Testicular Tumour in Dog. Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research, 4(4), 189–190.

Ramsey, I. K. (2017). BSAVA Small Animal Formulary: Part A, Canine and Feline (9th ed.). British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

Salve, P., Hatzade, R., Thorat, M., & Raulkar, R. (2021). Surgical management of urolithiasis in a male dog. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 9(1), 1687–1690.

Sardjana, I. K. W., & Kusumawati, D. (2011). Bedah Veteriner (1st ed.). Pusat Penerbitan dan Percetakan Unair (AUP).

Schauvlieghe, S., Seymour, C., Brearley, J. C., & Gasthuys, F. (2010). Anesthesia for cystotomy in a dog with pancreatitis and a portosystemic shunt. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift, 79(4), 284–291.

Sharma, P., Sharma, C., Negi, A., Purohit, S., Pandey, R. P., & Prabu, S. N. (2020). Diagnosis and Surgical Management of Cystolith in a Female Labrador Dog. Haryana Vet, 59(2), 300–302




How to Cite

Kisya, L. A., & Vidiastuti, D. (2023). Anaesthesia Management Strategies for Cystotomy in Dogs. Veterinary Biomedical and Clinical Journal, 5(2), 52–58.